When Did Mexico Win Independence From Spain?

13 mins read

Last Updated on September 16, 2022


When Did Mexico Win Its Independence From Spain? What were the key events in the 1821 Mexican revolution? We’ll explore Hidalgo’s declaration of independence, the Plan of Iguala, and the Treaty of Cordoba. Then, we’ll examine what happened after 1821 and how the independence struggle changed the course of the country. And, finally, we’ll consider the importance of the Treaty of Cordoba.

When Did Mexico Win Independence From Spain? was a popular question in Mexico during the early 1800s. The country was under the control of Spain until the early 1830s. The country’s independence struggle began with guerrilla groups in the mountains. However, two men rose to the occasion in 1820. They were Guadalupe Victoria and Vicente Guerrero. Both men sided with the rebels in the fight for independence. They killed hundreds of Spanish soldiers and gained a majority of the nation’s population.

After the Mexican Revolution, Iturbide took control of the colonial government. He copied the emperor ceremony used by Napoleon and stocked the government with corrupt officials and dishonest business deals. In 1822, Mexico annexed the Federal Republic of Central America, which included Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and part of Chiapas. In 1861, the French invaded the country and put Maximilian I on the throne.

After the fall of Emperor Agustin I in 1823, the Mexican Constitution was enacted. The Mexican people argued about whether they wanted a strong central government, or a confederation of strong states. Federalists won the debate, and elected a Constitutional Congress. In the end, the Mexican constitution opted for a federal system. In the new nation, the federal government shared its tax revenues and sovereignty with the states, making Mexico a weak central state. The political instability made borrowing from abroad very costly, and nearly all of the country’s public revenues had to come from customs receipts. The Mexican people were stuck in a vicious cycle.

Hidalgo’s declaration of independence

Hidalgo was involved in a plot against the Spanish colonial government. His efforts led to his gruesome execution, but his cry for independence set the stage for Mexico’s fight for independence. Hidalgo’s cry would inspire thousands of Mexicans to revolt against Spain. While there are no records of his exact speech, many believe that he said things like, “long live Our Lady of Guadalupe, and death to bad government and gachupines”.

The Mexican Revolution started with looting in the city of Guanajuato. Hidalgo’s Indian army was ordered to retreat by Spanish government leaders, and Hidalgo’s men hoped to find refuge in the northeastern provinces. When the governor of Nuevo Santander ordered his men to fight the rebels, the royalists rioted against him. In Coahuila, the governor of the province was forced to withdraw 700 troops to fight Hidalgo’s men.

Hidalgo y Costilla, a 55-year-old priest, was a leading figure in the struggle for independence. He had spent years working for poor Indians and was an ardent proponent of European Enlightenment. He also worked tirelessly for the cause of the poor. He also wrote letters to the viceroy and the king of Spain. Hidalgo’s declaration of independence from Spain was not received well by the Spanish Royalists, and it was snubbed in 1814.

Iturbide’s plan of Iguala

Iturbide’s revolt against the Spanish crown on Feb. 24, 1821, resulted in the publication of the Plan of Iguala, or the Triguarantine Plan. The document laid out a conservative program and three guarantees that would be implemented if Mexico won independence. Iturbide sought to preserve the colonial system and to replace Spaniards with Creoles in governmental positions. He also aimed to establish Mexico as a sovereign monarchy and preserve class privileges.

The Mexican flag is a representation of the new nation. Green and red colors represent independence and union. The Aztec symbol of an eagle perched on a cactus was placed in the center. The eagle, bearing a crown, symbolized the new nation’s status as an empire. It is also believed to represent the Catholic faith and moderate constitutional monarchy.

Iturbide’s new nation faced a long list of problems, namely a national debt of 75 million pesos, a lack of funds to maintain an army, and numerous other issues. As a result, the Mexican Congress sentenced Iturbide to death, and he was executed by firing squad on July 19, 1824. This plan was supported by the Mexican public, but Iturbide did not live long enough to be recognized as an emperor.

Treaty of Cordoba

The Treaty of Cordoba, signed on August 24, 1821, formally established Mexico as a separate country from Spain. The document, which had 17 articles, was signed by Juan O’Donoju and Agustin de Iturbide. The treaty, which also called for the end of Spanish rule in Mexico, is not generally recognized as a foundational moment of the Mexican Republic.

The Treaty of Cordoba, signed on 24 August 1821, recognized Mexico as an independent nation and arranged for the withdrawal of Spanish forces. The Spanish Constitution of 1812 had made it possible for a coup against Ferdinand VII to take back control of the country, which it did. Iturbide invited Guerrero to discuss the new independence struggle and created the Treaty of Cordoba. The Treaty also included three guarantees that Mexico would be a sovereign nation after it won its independence from Spain: the Roman Catholic Church would have privileges and religion, the Spanish monarch would be the head of state, and the only religion allowed in the country would be the Roman Catholic Church.

The main rebels in the independence war were mainly isolated guerrilla groups. Despite this, two soldiers rose from the ashes to become leaders of the revolution. They were named Vicente Guerrero in Oaxaca and Guadalupe Victoria in Puebla, respectively. Both of these men were later executed by the Spanish viceroy in 1815. A number of other important events occurred in the history of Mexico’s independence.

Mexican constitution

When did Mexico gain its independence from Spain? This question has been a source of debate ever since Mexico first became independent from Spain in 1821. The Mexican constitution shares many similarities with the one of 1824, though it has undergone a number of changes. The basic structure of the constitution guarantees individual rights, the separation of powers, and responsibilities for government officials. There are also provisions for free and compulsory education, freedom of religion and speech, and private property. The Mexican president, however, serves for four-year terms.

The uprising was led by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, the “father of Mexican independence.” His uprising took place on 16 September 1810. While he managed to inspire tens of thousands of men, he lacked the skills to organize a fighting force or formulate a comprehensive military strategy. His goal was to destroy the old order, but he failed to articulate a coherent plan to achieve this.

The country was once known as “New Spain” when the kingdom of Spaniards ruled the area. For 300 years, the native population was oppressed, their farmland and personal wealth confiscated, and only Spaniards could hold political positions. The Spanish ruled Mexico for a hundred years, until a Catholic priest, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, led a rebellion in Dolores.

Native peoples’ special colonial status

The visual arts of colonial Mexico and Peru have received the most scholarly attention. Bailey 2005 and Donahue-Wallace (2008) are excellent textbooks that cover the entire colonial period. The multimedia Vistas website is an excellent resource. For more on graphic communication in native Americas, check out the Ethnohistory issue. In addition, check out the articles Lienhard 1991 and Stevenson 2007 for a quick overview of indigenous literary traditions.

The Mexican colonial system reflected a class structure with a small ruling class, comprised of land owners and miners, and a large majority of indigenous peasants. Subordinate Indian populations were absorbed into the colonial economy as servants, and their segregation was rigid enough to keep them out of the political process. In spite of the abolishment of slavery and serfdom, the colonial economy continued to exploit Indians through the landholding system.

The Chiapas uprising, which occurred in January 1994, called for a reassessment of indigenous peoples’ relations to the state. It rekindled debates over the role of indigenous peoples in Mexican history and affirmed the necessity of addressing these issues. The Chiapas uprising drew attention to these issues and the persistence of the indigenous question in Mexico and throughout Latin America.

National debt

The nation of Mexico is deeply indebted. The wars that followed its independence from Spain left a legacy of economic stagnation, as the country’s political instability thwarted foreign investment, and widespread anti-Spanish sentiment wiped out the country’s pool of skilled labor and capital. By 1824, Mexico had become so dependent on exports that nearly all its public revenue had to come from customs receipts.

The French, British, and Spanish intervened in Mexico, resulting in a complex process of sovereign debt diplomacy. The repeated coups d’etat and palace wars severely weakened the state’s finances. While foreign investors received indemnity payments from their home governments, state finance suffered enormously. The French even proposed military intervention to enforce property rights. However, Juarez and his supporters refused to accept this offer.

The devaluations had the opposite effect, reducing real wages and increasing the burden of servicing its dollar-denominated debt. The interest payments on long-term debt accounted for 28 percent of export revenue and cut Mexico off from any further international credit. The debt crisis led to the government declaring an involuntary moratorium on debt payments in August 1982. In response, the government also announced the nationalization of the private banking system.

About The Author

Alison Sowle is the typical tv guru. With a social media evangelist background, she knows how to get her message out there. However, she's also an introvert at heart and loves nothing more than writing for hours on end. She's a passionate creator who takes great joy in learning about new cultures - especially when it comes to beer!